Know more

About cookies

What is a "cookie"?

A "cookie" is a piece of information, usually small and identified by a name, which may be sent to your browser by a website you are visiting. Your web browser will store it for a period of time, and send it back to the web server each time you log on again.

Different types of cookies are placed on the sites:

  • Cookies strictly necessary for the proper functioning of the site
  • Cookies deposited by third party sites to improve the interactivity of the site, to collect statistics

Learn more about cookies and how they work

The different types of cookies used on this site

Cookies strictly necessary for the site to function

These cookies allow the main services of the site to function optimally. You can technically block them using your browser settings but your experience on the site may be degraded.

Furthermore, you have the possibility of opposing the use of audience measurement tracers strictly necessary for the functioning and current administration of the website in the cookie management window accessible via the link located in the footer of the site.

Technical cookies

Name of the cookie


Shelf life

CAS and PHP session cookies

Login credentials, session security



Saving your cookie consent choices

12 months

Audience measurement cookies (AT Internet)

Name of the cookie


Shelf life


Trace the visitor's route in order to establish visit statistics.

13 months


Store the anonymous ID of the visitor who starts the first time he visits the site

13 months


Identify the numbers (unique identifiers of a site) seen by the visitor and store the visitor's identifiers.

13 months

About the AT Internet audience measurement tool :

AT Internet's audience measurement tool Analytics is deployed on this site in order to obtain information on visitors' navigation and to improve its use.

The French data protection authority (CNIL) has granted an exemption to AT Internet's Web Analytics cookie. This tool is thus exempt from the collection of the Internet user's consent with regard to the deposit of analytics cookies. However, you can refuse the deposit of these cookies via the cookie management panel.

Good to know:

  • The data collected are not cross-checked with other processing operations
  • The deposited cookie is only used to produce anonymous statistics
  • The cookie does not allow the user's navigation on other sites to be tracked.

Third party cookies to improve the interactivity of the site

This site relies on certain services provided by third parties which allow :

  • to offer interactive content;
  • improve usability and facilitate the sharing of content on social networks;
  • view videos and animated presentations directly on our website;
  • protect form entries from robots;
  • monitor the performance of the site.

These third parties will collect and use your browsing data for their own purposes.

How to accept or reject cookies

When you start browsing an eZpublish site, the appearance of the "cookies" banner allows you to accept or refuse all the cookies we use. This banner will be displayed as long as you have not made a choice, even if you are browsing on another page of the site.

You can change your choices at any time by clicking on the "Cookie Management" link.

You can manage these cookies in your browser. Here are the procedures to follow: Firefox; Chrome; Explorer; Safari; Opera

For more information about the cookies we use, you can contact INRAE's Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at :


24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

Menu Logo Principal

Home page

Pea and faba bean

In the PeaMUST program, pea and faba beans are the target species. These are two crops cultivated since prehistoric times and originating from the Mediterranean basin, with a growth phase during the winter and maturing in spring. Among other dried vegetables from the Mediterranean, it is those who have the highest potential returns: this is why these cultures were identified as priorities for producing "protein" for animal feed.



Pea (Pisum sativum) is grown almost everywhere in the world, either as a spring crop in northern countries or as a winter crop elsewhere. This species has a large morphological diversity and is the subject of much research in genetics and plant breeding worldwide. This is the pea that was used by Gregor Mendel to form the basis of genetics, with the study of yellow or green, smooth or wrinkled seeds. We can distinguish three types of crop according to their uses:

- The garden pea (for freezing/canning), whose seeds are harvested "green" before they are filled with starch and nitrogen is remobilized from vegetative plant parts.

- Dry peas (or field peas) whose seeds are harvested at full maturity

- Peas called "forage" (note the confusion with the previous usage!), Harvested whole plant as a source of fodder for ruminants.

The seeds of peas are marketed under different names according to their visual appearance: yellow peas for human consumption, green peas (for poultry), both obtained from varieties with white flowers, marbled peas (very little grown , from grape varieties with colored flowers), "pea" for consignments intended for animal feed and where color is not a selection criterion. All of these types have the same average composition and nutritional value (these criteria are not correlated with the color), with the exception of seed coat color (due to tannins which reduce digestibility over seeds lacking tannins, green or yellow in appearance) and wrinkled peas (including starch synthesis is disturbed, low yield, and are never grown as pulses, only to produce garden peas).

In PeaMUST program, only the 'protein' pea type is studied. The majority are afila (leaflets are replaced by tendrils to better withstand lodging) with white flowers (so green or yellow seeds without tannins) and smooth seeds (in normal starch). However, all other genetic resources can be used, in particular to introduce stress tolerances from wild ecotypes. All outputs can potentially be used in breeding programs to produce other types of peas,notably garden peas.

Faba bean


Faba bean (Vicia faba) is less widely grown worldwide than pea, mainly in Western Europe and Australia. Its growing season is a little longer, extended by almost 3 weeks for the same sowing date and is a bit more exposed to water and thermal stress in continental regions. In Europe, it was used mainly for feeding draft animals before the development of tractors and as an ingredient in feed mills. In some North African and Near Eastern countries it is a major food, as well as chickpea, and it is used to make falafel, purees after shelling (fava beans) or cooked as whole seeds. More recently, after shelling, it has been used for fish and poultry feed in Europe.

There are two types of beans according to seed size: over 800 g of thousand-grain weight, it is called bean, below, faba bean. As for the pea, the seed is sometimes eaten green before maturity. There are also white varieties, yielding seeds without tannins, but they are much less cultivated than colored varieties due to agronomic problems. Finally, there are some varieties with low vicin-convicine (the causative agent of favism in humans - a form of severe anemia in genetically intolerant vicin individuals). Breeding programs are now geared mainly to creating varieties with colored flowers and low vicin-convicine.